This is a bad mistake with serious consequences. To give a name thereto I took small care, Since a good friend of mine its title found, II Pecoron, for that it doth abound With owlish loons, who make within their lair. A loon myself, I over these preside, And like a bleating calf my way pursue, Book-making, and I know not what beside, Granted the times be ripe, and that my due Of fame and honour with me may abide, For praise will greet me from the loutish crew. Then marvel not, O reader, if you find The book and writer of the self-same kind.
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For its historical facts, however, it relies on the Nuova Cronica of Giovanni Villani. Giovanni Fiorentino was a 14th-century Florentine writer, to whom is attributed the work Il Pecorone. This was a collection of short stories, purportedly published in However, this date is disputed. Giovanni Boccaccio was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist.
He wrote his imaginative literature mostly in the Italian vernacular, as well as other works in Latin, and is particularly noted for his realistic dialogue which differed from that of his contemporaries, medieval writers who usually followed formulaic models for character and plot.
The Golden Legend is a collection of hagiographies by Blessed Jacobus de Varagine that was widely read in late medieval Europe.
More than a thousand manuscripts of the text have survived. It was likely compiled around the year , although the text was added to over the centuries. One day Giannetto expresses a desire to make a voyage to Alexandria, so as to see something of the world; Ansaldo furnishes him with a fine ship and much merchandise, and off he starts. Sailing along the Venetian coast he observes a beautiful port and asks the captain whose it is.
The captain says that it belongs to a widow who has become very rich by gaining the fortunes of many lovers; for she has made it a law that whoever puts into the harbour which is called Belmonte must woo her, and if he fails to fulfil certain difficult conditions, give up to her everything he has brought with him.
Many have tried, but the lady who is extremely beautiful has drugged and tricked them. So Giannetto puts into port, tries, fails, loses his valuable ship and merchandise, and returns to Venice with the story that he has been shipwrecked; and Ansaldo receives him again into his house. A little time passes and then Giannetto again expresses a wish to travel; and Ansaldo provides him with yet costlier vessel.
He reaches Belmonte, is unsuccessful again over the hard conditions, loses his property as before, and comes back to Venice. However, he is determined to make a third venture, so persuades Ansaldo to provide a third ship. Ansaldo consents, but he has spent so much money already on Giannetto that his fortune has run very low, and he has to borrow 10, ducats of a Jew- on the condition that if he fails to repay the loan by the Feast of St.
John in the next month of June, the Jew may take a pound of flesh from any part of his body. The contract is signed, the ship and the merchandise got ready, and Giannetto departs. Before he goes, Ansaldo who has more than a foreboding that he may not be able to repay the money, gets Giannetto to promise that if anything happens to him Ansaldo , he will return to Venice to bid him farewell:if Giannetto does this, he can leave the world with satisfaction.
And Giannetto promises. He is greatly agitated, his wife enquires the cause, and, learning, bids him to hurry to Venice with , ducats to pay the debt, in case Ansaldo has not been able. It is too late however; Ansaldo has failed to pay; other merchants would discharge the debt willingly for him, but the Jew refuses and will not take even , ducats.
Meanwhile the lady is hastening to Venice. She is disguised as a lawyer from the University of Bologna and we will call her the Lawyer now. Arrived at an inn, the lawyer is told of this case about which all Venice is talking. He gives out that he is ready to determine difficult cases, and this one is referred to him though the Jew declares that he means to have his penalty, whatever the lawyer may say.
The lawyer reasons with the Jew and urges him to take , ducats which Giannetto who does not recognize the lawyer offers. But the Jew refuses, and the lawyer says there is no help- the pound of flesh must be taken.
Just as the Jew is about to cut it, the lawyer interrupts: "Take care what you do: do not cut more or less, and shed no blood: else you must die. It ends in the Jew during of the bond and leaving the court in a rage. Giannetto presses the lawyer to accept the , ducats, but he will only have a ring that Giannetto is wearing. Giannetto is loath to give it, but eventually does; and so they part. The lady as we must now call her again returns home , and a few days later comes Giannetto, with Ansaldo and some other friends.
She asks him, of course, for the ring and pretends to be terribly angry when he confesses that he gave it to the lawyer. Giannetto explains the cause by, " I swear by all that it sacred, and by your dear self, that I gave the ring to the lawyer who gained our cause.
The Merchant of Venice is a 16th-century play written by William Shakespeare in which a merchant in Venice named Antonio must default on a large loan provided by a Jewish moneylender, Shylock.
It is believed to have been written between and The composer Gioachino Rossini wrote quickly, and La gazza ladra was no exception. According to legend, before the first performance of the opera, the producer assured the composition of the overture by locking Rossini in a room, from the window of which the composer threw out the sheets of music to the copyists who then wrote the orchestral parts, to complete the composition of the opera.
As such, The Thieving Magpie is best known for the overture, which is musically notable for its use of snare drums. The ducat was a gold or silver coin used as a trade coin in Europe from the later Middle Ages until as late as the 20th century. Many types of ducats had various metallic content and purchasing power throughout the period. The gold ducat of Venice gained wide international acceptance, like the medieval Byzantine hyperpyron and the Florentine florin, or the modern British Pound sterling and the United States dollar.
The Medici Bank was a financial institution created by the Medici family in Italy during the 15th century — It was the largest and most respected bank in Europe during its prime.
There are some estimates that the Medici family was, for a period of time, the wealthiest family in Europe. With this monetary wealth, the family acquired political power initially in Florence, and later in the wider spheres of Italy and Europe. If he chooses the incorrect casket, he must leave and never seek another woman in marriage. She is said to be blonde and has curly hair. As Bassanio says to Antonio in, she is more beautiful than the word itself. Instead she favours a young but impoverished Venetian noble, soldier and a scholar, Bassanio who goes on to choose the right casket.
He governed the Venetian Republic from 9 March until , when he was forced to abdicate by Napoleon Bonaparte. The siege of Thessalonica between and saw the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Murad II capture the city of Thessalonica, which remained in Ottoman hands for the next five centuries, until it became part of the Kingdom of Greece in An influential, powerful and wealthy nobleman of Venice, he is a middle-aged man and a merchant by trade who has his financial interests tied up in overseas shipments when the play begins.
He is kind, generous, honest and confident, and is loved and revered by all the Christians who know him. His willingness to die for Bassanio is a manifestation of his character.
Antonio manifests anti-semitism by cursing and spitting at Shylock. He is a structural centre of the play. Andrea Vendramin served as Doge of Venice, —78, at the height of Venetian power, the only member of the Vendramin family to do so. He had served as Venetian Procurator in Rome, and his brief reign was largely concerned with the end of the Second Turkish—Venetian War. He probably died of plague. To fund the cost of this war, Molin sold access to the Venetian patriciate at a cost of , ducats per person.
Bertuccio Valiero was the nd Doge of Venice, reigning from his election on 15 June until his death. Giovanni Pesaro was the rd Doge of Venice, reigning from his election on April 8, until his death. The Cretan War — was ongoing for the entirety of his brief reign. This article presents a detailed timeline of the history of the Republic of Venice from its legendary foundation to its collapse under the efforts of Napoleon.
The film was made on location in Venice, with scenes and characters added which were not in the original play. This is the surviving copy, being two reels shorter than the German version. The film purports to be a return to the original, as an excuse for its differences from the play.
His defeat and conversion to Christianity form the climax of the story. Written between and , it was first performed in at the Bregenz Festival. The treaty largely repeated previous agreements between Venice and Ottoman rulers, and recognized the possessions of the Republic in Greece and Albania.
What stories inspired the play? Oil on canvas. This allusion means that the play cannot have been written before the late summer of The play was first printed in a quarto edition in Sources Il Pecorone There are many ancient legends and folk-tales from around the world in which a bargain is struck with a bond of human flesh as security.
Dates and sources
For its historical facts, however, it relies on the Nuova Cronica of Giovanni Villani. One day Giannetto expresses a desire to make a voyage to Alexandria, so as to see something of the world; Ansaldo furnishes him with a fine ship and much merchandise, and off he starts. Sailing along the Venetian coast he observes a beautiful port and asks the captain whose it is. The captain says that it belongs to a widow who has become very rich by gaining the fortunes of many lovers; for she has made it a law that whoever puts into the harbour which is called Belmonte must woo her, and if he fails to fulfil certain difficult conditions, give up to her everything he has brought with him.
The Merchant of Venice