Some perform important functions, such as pollination or break-down of dead vegetation. Others weaken, deform or kill trees, and compete with humans for the many goods and services that trees and forests provide. Forest entomology: a global perspective examines forest insects in a global context and reviews their dynamics, interactions with humans and methods for monitoring and management of species that damage forests. Also provided are profiles of forest insects, worldwide. A series of tables provides sumaries of the distribution and hosts of many more species.
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Login Error message Deprecated function: The each function is deprecated. William M. Introduction First, I want to take this opportunity to thank everyone who was involved in my selection for the Western Forest Insect Work Conference Founders Award.
I know Carroll Williams is the one that nominated me for this recognition. Hopkins award, are the Oscars of Forest Entomology. For me, this is truly one of the high points of my life. It also involved some forest pathology, a lot of remote sensing and many years of program management. I also want to say that having the opportunity to give this address in Asheville, NC is special for me. Special People Before highlighting some of my own career, I want to take this opportunity to recognize some people that had a significant influence on how my professional life developed.
Without their influence and guidance, it may have taken a very different direction. Aubrey H. MacAndrews A. Mac, as he was known around the college, was undoubtedly the best teacher I have encountered. For me, he was a bright star in a faculty filled with gifted teachers. Mac did two things for me.
First, he made it clear in his required Entomology 2 class that there was a great deal about the insects that are damaging our forests that we do not know. He also brought the real world into the classroom. He often spent entire lectures describing consultations he had done for the City of Syracuse, the activities of unscrupulous tree surgeons or crazy things that happened on spruce budworm spray projects while he was working in Canada.
I got involved in aerial surveys, development of methods to predict defoliator outbreaks and had the opportunity to work with a young entomologist by the name of Gene Amman, who is also a recipient of this coveted award. I spent a lot of that summer helping Gene rear and release predators of the balsam woolly adelgid on Mt. By the end of that summer, I was hooked. I knew what I wanted to do for the rest of my working life. When I went back to Syracuse that Fall, I had some real direction.
I loaded up on elective courses in entomology and, despite the heavy course load, my grades improved significantly. A few months later, the applied functions of the Divisions of Forest Insect and Disease Research: surveys, evaluations and technical assistance to suppression projects were transferred to the Regions.
In response, R-8 chartered a series of zone or field offices staffed with specialists to do this work. I made the switch and became one of the charter members of the Asheville "zone" office. Russ was one of the most unforgettable individuals I ever met. He grew up on a homestead in eastern Colorado and would tell fascinating stories about life on the prairie. One of the few things Russ told me about his OSS experience was that as part of his training, he had to be able to drink a bottle of whiskey within a certain period and still carry on a coherent conversation.
For some unknown reason, Russ felt it necessary to maintain this level of training long after he left the OSS. He liked the way I wrote technical reports and two years into this assignment, he made it possible for me to go to graduate school under the Government Employees Training Act.
Several years later, at the age of 26, Russ saw fit to select me to be the "Zone Leader" of the Asheville Zone Office. Bob Heller I first met Bob Heller during the summer of Phil Weber Phil is a contemporary.
During those years, we had a great deal of contact with one another and took on a number of cooperative efforts. Whenever we worked together, a wonderful synergy developed and together we accomplished some good things. Sadly, all but the last two of these outstanding people, are gone. They were gone before I fully understood the positive impact they had on my life. I mention this because every one of you in this room can assemble a list of people that had a similar influence on your lives.
And, very likely, by the time you get around to doing this, some of them too will be gone. The only way you can really thank them is to have a similar effect on the life and career of a friend or colleague. From that point of view, the one thing that would mean more to me even than receiving this award, would be for one or two of you to see fit to include my name on your own list of special people.
Career Recollections Asheville, NC - I spent a significant amount of my early years in Asheville working with the elm spanworm,Ennomos subsignarius, a hardwood defoliator that had reached epidemic levels over portions of north Georgia, southeastern Tennessee and western North Carolina.
During the early to mid s, the outbreak encompassed in excess of 1 million acres of mixed broadleaf forests. In , I recovered an egg parasitoid, subsequently identified asTelenomus alsophilae, from the egg masses of this defoliator.
The high level of parasitism was accompanied by a significant decline in outbreak area Ciesla A year later, I was able to determine that parasitization occurred about three weeks prior to egg hatch Ciesla During the mid s, I was involved in assessments of seed losses caused by seed and cone insects in southern yellow pine seed production areas and successfully tested a hydraulic lift vehicle to reach into the crowns of tall pines.
Several years later R-8 purchased several of these units for tree improvement work. Through a combination of aerial and ground surveys, we detected localized infestations in each of the areas of spruce-fir forest in the high elevations of the Southern Appalachian Mountains. For several years, we made annual treks into the more remote areas of the Great Smoky Mountain National Parks on horseback to ground check areas of fir mortality.
These were real wilderness adventures that involved incidents with half tame black bears coming into our campsites to steal horse feed, horses returning to their stables at night, leaving us stranded, and finding caches of white lightning hidden along the Appalachian Trail. In , I had the opportunity to explore the use of both color and color-IR aerial photos as a tool for assessment and inventory of beetle caused mortality using a multi-stage sampling technique Ciesla et al.
When I presented the results of this work to Russ Smith, R-8 Director of Forest Pest Control, he was enthusiastic about making the technique operational and we developed project air photo capabilities in both the Asheville and Pineville Field Offices.
Two years into my Pineville assignment, in August , two things happened simultaneously. My second daughter, Cathy was born and Hurricane Camille struck the coast of Mississippi. Hurricane Camille was a Category 5 storm that caused major damage to property and infrastructure on the Mississippi coast and caused blowdown over a large area of the State. The Mississippi Forestry Commission requested a survey to map blowdown and identify priority areas for salvage.
For several days I commuted between the hospital and the office, attempting to coordinate the survey. The survey was successfully completed and the Forest Service aerial survey team mapped over 1. In , scientists at the Southern Forest Experiment Station conducted field tests of several chemical and biological insecticides for control of this defoliator in the Mobile River Basin.
Since the areas were inundated with feet of spring runoff at the time of spraying, classic pre and post spray larval sampling to determine efficacy of the various materials was virtually impossible. The Pineville F. The move to Missoula fulfilled a childhood dream, the opportunity to live and work in the West. We established the test on the Nezperce National Forest, set up a field laboratory in Grangeville, ID, and hired a number of local residents to work both in the field and laboratory.
Of the 30 locals we hired for the field crews, 26 were female. In , forestry and forest entomology were still very male dominated professions and I had some concerns about whether or not female field crews could do the job that was needed. I soon learned that they were quite capable of handling the job and moreover, that these ladies enjoyed being out in the hills as much as I did. The only real problem we had was that since they were clipping branches out of trees with pole pruners, I insisted they wear hardhats.
At the time, heavily teased hairstyles, such as the beehive, were in fashion, something not conducive to the wearing of hard hats. There were many times during that project when I saw ladies from the field crews running back to their pickups for their hard hats as I turned a corner on a back road.
In order to assess the magnitude of the outbreak, I designed and conducted a multistage inventory using aerial photos and ground surveys, based on the work I had done with southern pine beetle in R-8 Ciesla et al.
The resultant survey produced the needed data and was repeated for several years McGregor et al. In addition, since the outbreak involved largely state and private lands, I used it as an example of why the Idaho Department of Lands should become involved in the Cooperative Forest Pest Action Program and add a forest pest management specialist to their staff.
In , work in R-6 established that the insecticide Zectran was ineffective against this insect. Having to use DDT against this massive outbreak was not my proudest moment as a forest entomologist. However, we applied the material with as much precision as possible and conducted a parallel effort of testing other chemical and biological insecticides that met with some success Ciesla , Ciesla et al.
This group, whose function was to evaluate and implement new technologies, especially for assessment of pest impacts, was originally established in Davis, CA and later relocated to Fort Collins, CO.
Army Dugway Proving Grounds, joined the staff. One of the first projects we took on was to characterize a DC-7 spray aircraft based in Burbank, CA for possible use on a spruce budworm project in Maine. We established a characterization grid in a large salt flat in southern CA. While en route to the grid, loaded with a tank mix dyed with a vivid red dye, the engineer running the spray system decided to test it over the community of Valencia, CA.
The system worked well. Several local residents witnessed a large aircraft releasing a deep red spay cloud over a rather upscale residential area. Within minutes, the homes turned pink, as did a number of swimming pools, cats and white poodles.
One of the witnesses managed to get the tail number of the aircraft and called the FAA. Later that evening, the owners of this aircraft had to do quite a bit of explaining to the authorities while Jack and I maintained a very low profile. The ability to integrate spatial information on insect and disease damage with land ownership, vegetation types and other thematic map layers and generate data tables using a computer was, to us in MAG, a fascinating concept.
Soon terms such as "polygons, arcs, points, digitizing" and "overlay processing" became an integral part of our vocabulary. For a time, a moratorium was placed on GIS development and implementation in the Forest Service until some basic issues could be addressed. Fish and Wildlife Service, which had an office in the same complex we were housed.
Together we conducted a number of tests and demonstrations with this system Pence et al. Through the efforts of Eleanor Franz, MAG Administrative Technician, we established partnerships with facilities that provided work opportunities for the mentally and physically challenged both in Davis and Fort Collins to coat the milk carton traps with Tanglefoot and package traps and pheromone baits for delivery to the field. Perhaps the most exciting technology we worked with during my years at MAG was the use of high altitude panoramic aerial photography for mapping and assessment of forest damage.
The ER-2 aircraft, a civilian version of the U-2, and the large area covered by a single frame of photography, allowed us to cover large areas in a short time and acquire complete air photo coverage of outbreak areas Ciesla et al.
In order to determine if we could resolve mountain pine beetle faders on the , scale aerial photos, Phil Weber ordered a test flight over a portion of the Ochoco National Forest in Oregon during October using color-IR film. When Phil received the photos, he was ecstatic. For a moment there was silence in the room.
Manufacturers, suppliers and others provide what you see here, and we have not verified it. Some perform important functions such as pollination or break-down of dead vegetation. Others weaken deform or kill trees and compete with humans for the many goods and services that trees and forests provide. Forest Entomology: A Global Perspective examines forest insects in a global context and reviews their dynamics interactions with humans and methods for monitoring and management of species that damage forests. Also provided are profiles of forest insects worldwide. A series of tables provides summaries of the distribution and hosts of many more species.
Forest entomology : a global perspective
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