The case of management, accounting and reporting of a Malaysian cash awqaf institution, Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, Vol. This article is about the religious endowment. There can also be multiple beneficiaries. Personal trust law developed in England at the time of the Crusadesduring the 12th and 13th centuries. And it will not be held against him who administers it if he consumes some of its yield in an appropriate manner or feeds a friend who does not enrich himself by means of it. The Court of Chancery, under the principles of equity, enforced the rights of absentee Crusaders who had made temporary assignments of their lands to caretakers.
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Finally if a person is fatally ill, the waqf is subject to the same restrictions as a will in Islam. The objects should not themselves be haram e. These objects should not already be in the public domain: public property cannot be used to establish a waqf. The founder cannot also have pledged the property previously to someone else. These conditions are generally true for contracts in Islam. All movable goods can also form waqf, according to most Islamic jurists. The Hanafis, however, also allow most movable goods to be dedicated to a waqf with some restrictions.
Some jurists have argued that even gold and silver or other currency can be designated as waqf. Public utilities such as mosques, schools, bridges, graveyards and drinking fountains can be the beneficiaries of a waqf. Modern legislation divides the waqf as "charitable causes", in which the beneficiaries are the public or the poor and "family" waqf, in which the founder makes the beneficiaries his relatives.
There can also be multiple beneficiaries. For example, the founder may stipulate that half the proceeds go to his family, while the other half go to the poor. At least some of the beneficiaries must also exist at the time of the founding of the waqf. An example of a non-existent beneficiary is an unborn child. The beneficiaries must not be at war with the Muslims. Scholars stress that non-Muslim citizens of the Islamic state dhimmi can definitely be beneficiaries.
The beneficiaries may not use the waqf for a purpose in contradiction of Islamic principles. There is dispute over whether the founder himself can reserve exclusive rights to use waqf. Once in their use, however, the waqf becomes an institution in its own right. The founder may himself choose to administer the waqf during his lifetime.
In some cases, however, the number of beneficiaries are quite limited. Thus, there is no need for an administrator, and the beneficiaries themselves can take care of the waqf. In addition, trustworthiness and administration skills are required.
Some scholars require that the administrator of this Islamic religious institution be a Muslim, though the Hanafis drop this requirement. Nevertheless, Islamic law envisages conditions under which the waqf may be terminated:  If the goods of the waqf are destroyed or damaged. Scholars interpret this as the case where goods are no longer used in the manner intended by the founder. Other scholars, however, hold that all possibilities must be examined to see if the goods of the waqf can be used at all, exhausting all methods of exploitation before the termination.
Thus, land, according to such jurists, can never become extinguished. Since waqf is an Islamic institution it becomes void if the founder converts to another religion. As the waqf would expire whenever its termination conditions are fulfilled e. History and location[ edit ] Uthman waqf Medina The practices attributed to Muhammad have promoted the institution of waqf from the earliest part of Islamic history.
The next oldest document is a marble tablet whose inscription bears the Islamic date equivalent to CE and states the waqf status of an inn, but is in itself not the original deed; it is held at the Eretz Israel Museum in Tel Aviv. According to the book, Sultan Muizuddin Sam Ghaor dedicated two villages in favor of Jama Masjid , Multan , and, handed its administration to the Shaikhul Islam highest ecclesiastical officer of the Empire. In the coming years, several more wakfs were created, as the Delhi Sultanate flourished.
After the enactment Wakf Act , the Union government directed to all the states governments to implement the Act for administering the wakf institutions like mosques, dargah , ashurkhanas , graveyards, takhiyas, iddgahs, imambara , anjuman s and various religious and charitable institutions. Instead, Islamic west African societies placed a much greater emphasis on non-permanent acts of charity. By the 11th century, many Islamic cities had several hospitals.
The waqf trust institutions funded the hospitals for various expenses, including the wages of doctors, ophthalmologists , surgeons, chemists , pharmacists , domestics and all other staff, the purchase of foods and medicines ; hospital equipment such as beds, mattresses, bowls and perfumes; and repairs to buildings.
The waqf trusts also funded medical schools, and their revenues covered various expenses such as their maintenance and the payment of teachers and students.
Another difference was the English vesting of "legal estate" over the trust property in the trustee, though the "trustee was still bound to administer that property for the benefit of the beneficiaries. The Court of Chancery, under the principles of equity, enforced the rights of absentee Crusaders who had made temporary assignments of their lands to caretakers. It has been speculated that this development may have been influenced by the waqf institutions in the Middle East.
EVKĀF-ı HÜMÂYUN NEZÂRETİ
Darn This abstract may be abridged. Shaikh Abdur Rashid ed. He was more interested in architecture than engineering classes. A possibly older waqfiya is a papyrus held by the Louvre Museum in Pariswith no written date but considered to be from the mid-9th century. The earliest pious foundations in Egypt were charitable gifts, and not in the form of a waqf. Search for Staff Search for GaziWeb.
Evkaf-ı Hümâyun Nezâreti
Faur There is dispute over whether the founder himself can reserve exclusive rights to use waqf. In the summer of the same year, he was sent to Budapest and Vienne to acquire more knowledge about archtitecture. The declaration of founding is usually a written document, accompanied by a verbal declaration, though neither are required by most scholars. A possibly older waqfiya is a papyrus held by the Louvre Museum in Pariswith no written date but considered to be from the mid-9th century. In the coming years, several more wakfs were created, as the Delhi Sultanate flourished. In order to organize the administrations of these foundations and to provide communication with related ministry, the Directorate of Skopje Evkaf was established during Tanzimat period.
Fekora The Court of Chancery, under the principles of equity, enforced the rights of absentee Crusaders who had made temporary assignments of their lands to caretakers. For this the founder must:. For example, the founder may stipulate that half the proceeds go to his family, while the other half go to the poor. Masturbation Hygiene Rape Zina Awrah. Valid beneficiaries must satisfy the following conditions: Imam Abu Yusuf and Muhammad say: Instead, Islamic west African societies placed a much greater emphasis on non-permanent acts of charity. Nezartei graduated from the school in Journal of International Social Research.
EVKAF NEZARETI PDF
Thus, public property cannot be used to establish a waqf. This article is about the religious endowment. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. A possibly older waqfiya is a papyrus held by the Louvre Museum in Pariswith no written date but considered to be from the mid-9th century.