ENMOD CONVENTION PDF

History[ edit ] The problem of artificial modification of the environment for military or other hostile purposes was brought to the international agenda in the early s. Following the US decision of July to renounce the use of climate modification techniques for hostile purposes, the resolution by the US Senate calling for an international agreement "prohibiting the use of any environmental or geophysical modification activity as a weapon of war", and an in-depth review by the Department of Defense of the military aspects of weather and other environmental modification techniques, US decided to seek agreement with the Soviet Union to explore the possibilities of an international agreement. In July , US and USSR agreed to hold bilateral discussions on measures to overcome the danger of the use of environmental modification techniques for military purposes and three subsequent rounds of discussions in and Environmental Modification Technique[ edit ] Environmental Modification Technique includes any technique for changing — through the deliberate manipulation of natural processes — the dynamics, composition or structure of the earth, including its biota, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere, or of outer space. These Understandings are not incorporated into the Convention but are part of the negotiating record and were included in the report transmitted by the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament to the United Nations General Assembly in September Report of the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament, Volume I, General Assembly Official records: Thirty-first session, Supplement No.

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Pursuant to its article VII, the Convention is of unlimited duration. Status: Signatories: 48 16 of the signatories have not yet ratified; States Parties : Depositary: Secretary-General of the United Nations.

History: The problem of artificial modification of the environment for military or other hostile purposes was brought to the international agenda in the early s. In July , USA and USSR agreed to hold bilateral discussions on measures to overcome the danger of the use of environmental modification techniques for military purposes and three subsequent rounds of discussions in and These Understandings are not incorporated into the Convention but are part of the negotiating record and were included in the report transmitted by the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament to the United Nations General Assembly in September Report of the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament, Volume I, General Assembly Official records: Thirty-first session, Supplement No.

ENMOD scope: States parties undertake not to engage in military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects as the means of destruction, damage or injury to another State party article I.

Compliance: Article V of the Convention provides for a consultation mechanism to solve any problem arising in relation to the objectives and in the application of the provisions of the Convention, including the establishment of a Consultative Committee of Experts to be chaired by the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

It also provides that at intervals of not less than five years thereafter, a majority of the States Parties to the Convention may obtain, by submitting a proposal to this effect to the Depositary, the convening of a conference with the same objectives, and that if no conference has been convened within ten years following the conclusion of a previous conference, the Depositary shall solicit the views of all States Parties to the Convention, concerning the convening of such a conference.

The Depositary shall take immediate steps to convene such a conference if one third or ten of the States Parties, whichever number is less, respond affirmatively. The Second Review Conference took place in September The Final Document of the Second Review Conference provided that if no Review Conference were held before the Depositary would be requested to solicit the views of all States Parties concerning the convening of such a Conference in accordance with paragraph 3 of article III of the Convention.

Against this background, the Secretary-General of the United Nations has initiated a process of soliciting the views of the States parties to the Convention on the convening of the Third Review conference of the States parties to the Convention, as follows: Given that less than ten of the States Parties respond affirmatively to his query, the Secretary-General circulated the following communication to the States parties of ENMOD:.

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List of parties to the Environmental Modification Convention

Each State Party to this Convention undertakes not to engage in military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects as the means of destruction, damage or injury to any other State Party. Each State Party to this Convention undertakes not to assist, encourage or induce any State, group of States or international organiza-tion to engage in activities contrary to the provisions of paragraph 1 of this article. Article II As used in Article I, the term "environmental modification techniques" refers to any technique for changing -- through the deliberate manipulation of natural processes -- the dynamics, composition or structure of the Earth, including its biota, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere, or of outer space. Article III 1. The provisions of this Convention shall not hinder the use of environmental modification techniques for peaceful purposes and shall be without prejudice to the generally recognized principles and applicable rules of international law concerning such use. The States Parties to this Convention undertake to facilitate, and have the right to participate in, the fullest possible exchange of scientific and technological information on the use of environmental modification techniques for peaceful purposes.

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U.S. Department of State

Pursuant to its article VII, the Convention is of unlimited duration. Status: Signatories: 48 16 of the signatories have not yet ratified; States Parties : Depositary: Secretary-General of the United Nations. History: The problem of artificial modification of the environment for military or other hostile purposes was brought to the international agenda in the early s. In July , USA and USSR agreed to hold bilateral discussions on measures to overcome the danger of the use of environmental modification techniques for military purposes and three subsequent rounds of discussions in and These Understandings are not incorporated into the Convention but are part of the negotiating record and were included in the report transmitted by the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament to the United Nations General Assembly in September Report of the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament, Volume I, General Assembly Official records: Thirty-first session, Supplement No.

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ENMOD-Konvention

It consists of ten articles and an Annex concerning the Consultative Committee of Experts. In its Article I the Convention, which is part of disarmament efforts, prohibits the Contracting Parties from engaging in "military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects as the means of destruction, damage or injury to any other State Party". Article 2 specifies what is meant exactly by the term "environmental modification techniques". It should be noted that the adjectives "widespread" "long-lasting" and "severe" are echoed widespread, long-term, severe in Protocol I additional to the Geneva Conventions Article 35, para. Whilst in these two instruments the term "environment" is preceded by the adjective "natural", the ENMOD Convention speaks of the "environment" without any attributive. The Understanding relating to Article I gives to the terms "widespread", "long-lasting" and "severe" an interpretation limited to the ENMOD Convention and one which is not intended to prejudice the interpretation of the same or similar terms if used in connection with any other international agreement. The first Review Conference took place in Geneva in September

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