ENGELBART AUGMENTING HUMAN INTELLECT PDF

Major contributions[ edit ] William Ross Ashby: Intelligence Amplification[ edit ] The term intelligence amplification IA has enjoyed a wide currency since William Ross Ashby wrote of "amplifying intelligence" in his Introduction to Cybernetics Related ideas were explicitly proposed as an alternative to Artificial Intelligence by Hao Wang from the early days of automatic theorem provers. Take, for instance, any popular book of problems and puzzles. Almost every one can be reduced to the form: out of a certain set, indicate one element It is, in fact, difficult to think of a problem, either playful or serious, that does not ultimately require an appropriate selection as necessary and sufficient for its solution. Thus it is not impossible that what is commonly referred to as "intellectual power" may be equivalent to "power of appropriate selection".

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Major contributions[ edit ] William Ross Ashby: Intelligence Amplification[ edit ] The term intelligence amplification IA has enjoyed a wide currency since William Ross Ashby wrote of "amplifying intelligence" in his Introduction to Cybernetics Related ideas were explicitly proposed as an alternative to Artificial Intelligence by Hao Wang from the early days of automatic theorem provers.

Take, for instance, any popular book of problems and puzzles. Almost every one can be reduced to the form: out of a certain set, indicate one element It is, in fact, difficult to think of a problem, either playful or serious, that does not ultimately require an appropriate selection as necessary and sufficient for its solution.

Thus it is not impossible that what is commonly referred to as "intellectual power" may be equivalent to "power of appropriate selection". If this is so, and as we know that power of selection can be amplified, it seems to follow that intellectual power, like physical power, can be amplified. Let no one say that it cannot be done, for the gene-patterns do it every time they form a brain that grows up to be something better than the gene-pattern could have specified in detail. What is new is that we can now do it synthetically, consciously, deliberately.

Ashby, W. There are many man-machine systems. At present, however, there are no man-computer symbioses. The purposes of this paper are to present the concept and, hopefully, to foster the development of man-computer symbiosis by analyzing some problems of interaction between men and computing machines, calling attention to applicable principles of man-machine engineering, and pointing out a few questions to which research answers are needed.

The hope is that, in not too many years, human brains and computing machines will be coupled together very tightly, and that the resulting partnership will think as no human brain has ever thought and process data in a way not approached by the information-handling machines we know today. Licklider, J. HFE-1, , Mar This paper is also seen by some historians as marking the genesis of ideas about computer networks which later blossomed into the Internet.

Both had a view of how computers could be used that was both at odds with the then-prevalent views which saw them as devices principally useful for computations , and key proponents of the way in which computers are now used as generic adjuncts to humans.

He thus set himself to the revolutionary task of developing computer-based technologies for manipulating information directly, and also to improve individual and group processes for knowledge-work. Increased capability in this respect is taken to mean a mixture of the following: more-rapid comprehension, better comprehension, the possibility of gaining a useful degree of comprehension in a situation that previously was too complex, speedier solutions, better solutions, and the possibility of finding solutions to problems that before seemed insolvable.

And by complex situations we include the professional problems of diplomats, executives, social scientists, life scientists, physical scientists, attorneys, designers--whether the problem situation exists for twenty minutes or twenty years.

We do not speak of isolated clever tricks that help in particular situations. We refer to a way of life in an integrated domain where hunches, cut-and-try, intangibles, and the human feel for a situation usefully co-exist with powerful concepts, streamlined terminology and notation, sophisticated methods, and high-powered electronic aids. For a sampling of research results, see their Mother of All Demos. They contrast cognitive outsourcing AI as an oracle, able to solve some large class of problems with better-than-human performance with cognitive transformation changing the operations and representations we use to think.

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Douglas Engelbart

When Engelbart state a framework that is not only a simply research report but a wrote this paper he felt the urgency to find a way to help people to vision of the future. The american engeneer thought in a very global way and inside the relationship between human and computer machines. But we have to which is headed by knowledge, but that the increase of them rember that for Engelbart the power of the machine is not located needs to be solved on a global scale and with the help of a tool in a single human — computer relation but in a series of networked that can afford to analyze, understand and share them to deal with computer. For this, Engelbart underline the importance of start augment the human collective capability to solve complex tasks to developing new means for approach this purpose. Before we and handling information. The system that is described here — useful to us to indicate the purpose that he has set, because this is even it is a computer-based system - have a social structure, not important and clarifying to better understand the development of mechanical.

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Augmenting Human Intellect

His ancestors were of German , Swedish and Norwegian descent. The family lived in Portland, Oregon, in his early years, and moved to the surrounding countryside along Johnson Creek when he was 8. His father died one year later. In his off hours he enjoyed hiking, camping, and folk dancing. It was there he met Ballard Fish August 18, — June 18, , [12] who was just completing her training to become an occupational therapist. They were married in Portola State Park on May 5,

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Intelligence amplification

We do not speak of isolated clever tricks that help in particular situations. We refer to a way of life in an integrated domain where hunches, cut-and-try, intangibles, and the human "feel for a situation" usefully co-exist with powerful concepts, streamlined terminology and notation, sophisticated methods, and high-powered electronic aids. Slides by Michael Nielsen , for a small-group discussion with people from the Recurse Center , August 10, The slides should be regarded as brief, rough and very! Augmenting intellect with paper and pencil What is x ? Hard for an unaided human. Even harder: what is ,, x ,,?

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