DONNA HARAWAY SITUATED KNOWLEDGES PDF

The Cyborg For Haraway, the existing system political, social, economic, cultural is sustained, not by essential truths discovered by science, but by the stories science tells, or constructs, for itself and the world, as well as by the stories told within the political order, stories which often serve to perpetuate the inequalities in the system. It is also more female than male and thus serves as the basis of a new feminist relation with technology. Modernist Western knowledge, for example, will be dominated by a male vision set in an Enlightenment frame, which sees the other the other culture or society as a lesser version of itself. Thus, the Enlightenment also contributes to the colonialist mentality, which says that indigenous peoples cannot speak for themselves, they must be spoken for and represented.

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Tweet Donna J. Haraway has been described as a " feminist , rather loosely a neo-Marxist and a postmodernist " Young, Haraway earned a degree in zoology and philosophy at the Colorado College and received the Boettcher Foundation scholarship. She lived in Paris for a year, studying philosophies of evolution on a Fulbright scholarship before completing her Ph. She wrote her dissertation on the functions of metaphor in shaping research in developmental biology in the twentieth century.

Bernal Award, for lifetime contributions to the field. Haraway has also lectured in feminist theory and techno-science at the European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland. Her ideas have sparked an explosion of debate in areas as diverse as primatology, philosophy, and developmental biology Kunzru, 1. In her book, Primate Visions: Gender, Race, and Nature in the World of Modern Science, Haraway explicates the metaphors and narratives that direct the science of primatology.

She demonstrates that there is a tendency to masculinize the stories about "reproductive competition and sex between aggressive males and receptive females [that] facilitate some and preclude other types of conclusions" Carubia, 4. She contends that female primatologists focus on different observations that require more communication and basic survival activities, offering very different perspectives of the origins of nature and culture than the currently accepted ones.

Drawing on examples of Western narratives and ideologies of gender , race and class , Haraway questions the most fundamental constructions of scientific human nature stories based on primates. In Primate Visions, she writes: My hope has been that the always oblique and sometimes perverse focusing would facilitate revisionings of fundamental, persistent western narratives about difference, especially racial and sexual difference; about reproduction, especially in terms of the multiplicities of generators and offspring; and about survival, especially about survival imagined in the boundary conditions of both the origins and ends of history, as told within western traditions of that complex genre An expert in her field, Haraway proposed an alternative perspective of the accepted ideologies that continue to shape the way scientific human nature stories are created.

More importantly, Haraway offers inventive analogies that reveal whole new vistas and possibilities for investigation Elkins.

In "A Cyborg Manifesto", Haraway deploys the metaphor of a cyborg to challenge feminists to engage in a politics beyond naturalism and essentialism. She also uses the cyborg metaphor to offer a political strategy for the seemingly disparate interests of socialism and feminism , writing, "We are all chimeras, theorized and fabricated hybrids of machine and organism; in short, we are cyborgs" p. She writes, "The cyborg does not dream of community on the model of the organic family, this time without the oedipal project.

The cyborg would not recognize the Garden of Eden; it is not made of mud and cannot dream of returning to dust. Another form of feminism that Haraway is disputing is "a jurisprudence model of feminism made popular by the legal scholar and Marxist, Catharine MacKinnon " Burow-Flak, , who fought to outlaw pornography as a form of hate speech.

A cyborg does not require a stable, essentialist identity, argues Haraway, and feminists should consider creating coalitions based on "affinity" instead of identity. To ground her argument, Haraway analyzes the phrase "women of color", suggesting it as one possible example of affinity politics.

Using a term coined by theorist Chela Sandoval, Haraway writes that "oppositional consciousness" is comparable with a cyborg politics, because rather than identity it stresses how affinity comes as a result of "otherness, difference, and specificity" p. Cyborg feminism In her updated essay "A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century" [3] , in her book Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature , Haraway uses the cyborg metaphor to explain how fundamental contradictions in feminist theory and identity should be conjoined, rather than resolved, similar to the fusion of machine and organism in cyborgs.

The idea of the cyborg deconstructs binaries of control and lack of control over the body , object and subject, nature and culture , in ways that are useful in postmodern feminist thought. Haraway uses the metaphor of cyborg identity to expose ways that things considered natural, like human bodies, are not, but are constructed by our ideas about them.

This has particular relevance to feminism, since Haraway believes women are often discussed or treated in ways that reduce them to bodies. Her conclusion: We are all cyborgs. Actually those oppositions are cultural constructions. Haraway underlines the critical function of the cyborg concept, especially for feminist politics. The current dualistic thinking involves a "logic of dominance" because the parts of the dualisms are not equivalent.

Thus, the logic produces hierarchies that legitimize men dominating women, whites dominating blacks, and humans dominating animals. Instead, Haraway suggests that people should undermine these hierarchies by actively exploring and mobilizing the blurring of borders. Haraway offers a critique of the feminist intervention into masculinized traditions of scientific rhetoric and the concept of "objectivity".

The essay identifies the metaphor that gives shape to the traditional feminist critique as a polarization. At one end lies those who would assert that science is a rhetorical practice and, as such, all "science is a contestable text and a power field" p. At the other are those interested in a feminist version of objectivity, a position Haraway describes as a "feminist empiricism". While the constructivist position, informed by post-structuralist theory, served as a strong tool for deconstructing the truth claims of hostile science by showing the radical historical specificity, and so contestability, of "every layer of the onion of scientific and technological constructions", it also resulted in a dismantling of any apparatus that might be used to effectively talk about the "real" world p.

Making use of the history of feminist standpoint theories, Haraway suggests that there may be a way to reconcile what has been accomplished by the radical constructivist critique of the historical social implications of the rhetoric of science with a specifically feminist positioning with regards to the practice of science.

To do this Haraway leaves aside the polarizing metaphor to explore the possibility of a metaphor of vision as one that might see us clear of an agonistic methodology and conception of objectivity in science. The idea that machines can contribute to liberation is something feminists and women should consider.

Haraway writes: "Up till now once upon a time , female embodiment seemed to be given, organic, necessary; and female embodiment seemed to mean skill in mothering and its metaphoric extensions. Only by being out of place could we take intense pleasure in machines, and then with excuses that this was organic activity after all, appropriate to females"[ citation needed ] In spite of this phrase Haraway also wishes to not completely disassociate herself from ecofeminist values[ citation needed ] 3.

She suggests that the dead gynoid had a ghost itself. The cyborg refers to herself as "Haraway" and bears a remarkable resemblance to the real life professor.

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Her works have sparked debate in primatology , philosophy , and developmental biology. Bernal Award, for her "distinguished contributions" to the field. The two of them would have dinner conversations about words and their fascination with them. For Haraway, the Manifesto offered a response to the rising conservatism during the s in the United States at a critical juncture at which feminists, in order to have any real-world significance, had to acknowledge their situatedness within what she terms the "informatics of domination. To ground her argument, Haraway analyzes the phrase "women of color", suggesting it as one possible example of affinity politics. Using a term coined by theorist Chela Sandoval, Haraway writes that "oppositional consciousness" is comparable with a cyborg politics, because rather than identity it stresses how affinity comes as a result of "otherness, difference, and specificity".

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Donna Haraway

In her book, Primate Visions: Gender, Race, and Nature in the World of Modern Science, Haraway explicates the metaphors and narratives that direct the science of primatology. She demonstrates that there is a tendency to masculinize the stories about "reproductive competition and sex between aggressive males and receptive females [that] facilitate some and preclude other types of conclusions" Carubia, 4. She contends that female primatologists focus on different observations that require more communication and basic survival activities, offering very different perspectives of the origins of nature and culture than the currently accepted ones. Drawing on examples of Western narratives and ideologies of gender , race and class , Haraway questions the most fundamental constructions of scientific human nature stories based on primates. In Primate Visions, she writes: My hope has been that the always oblique and sometimes perverse focusing would facilitate revisionings of fundamental, persistent western narratives about difference, especially racial and sexual difference; about reproduction, especially in terms of the multiplicities of generators and offspring; and about survival, especially about survival imagined in the boundary conditions of both the origins and ends of history, as told within western traditions of that complex genre An expert in her field, Haraway proposed an alternative perspective of the accepted ideologies that continue to shape the way scientific human nature stories are created. More importantly, Haraway offers inventive analogies that reveal whole new vistas and possibilities for investigation Elkins.

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Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective

For Haraway, the Manifesto offered a response to the rising conservatism during the s in the United States at a critical juncture at which feminists, in order to have any real-world significance, had to acknowledge their situatedness within what she terms the "informatics of domination. To ground her argument, Haraway analyzes the phrase "women of color", suggesting it as one possible example of affinity politics. Using a term coined by theorist Chela Sandoval, Haraway writes that "oppositional consciousness" is comparable with a cyborg politics, because rather than identity it stresses how affinity comes as a result of "otherness, difference, and specificity". Her new versions of beings reject Western humanist conceptions of personhood and promote a disembodied world of information and the withering of subjectivity. The collective consciousness of the beings and their limitless access to information provide the tools with which to create a world of immense socio-political change through altruism and affinity, not biological unity. In her essay Haraway challenges the liberal human subject and its lack of concern for collective desires which leaves the possibility for wide corruption and inequality in the world.

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