Rather, he sought to analyze the forms in which interaction takes place. For instance, understanding the specific content of interactions that take place between an employer and employee—what they talk about and why—is not of central concern to sociologists. Type: E Explain the difference between content and form in regards to interaction. Provide a concrete contemporary example to illustrate your understanding. For him, the essence of society lies in the interactions that take place between individuals and groups. Thus, according to Simmel, society and the individuals that compose it constitute an interdependent duality.
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Edmund Husserl is commonly considered the founder of phenomenology. Rather, all consciousness is consciousness of something, Husserl used the term lifeworld Lebenswelt to refer to the world of existing assumptions as they are experienced and made meaningful in consciousness Wagner Husserl explains how intentional consciousness, that is, directing our attention in one way or another, enables the phenomenologist to reconstruct or bracket his basic views on the world and himself and explore their interconnections.
Phenomenology investigates the systematic bracketing of all existing assumptions regarding the external world. In casting interpretive understanding, or Verstehen, as the principal objective of sociology, Weber offered a distinctive counter to those who sought to base sociology on the effort to uncover universal laws applicable to all societies.
In other words, while agreeing with Weber that social science must be interpretive, Schutz finds that Weber had failed to state clearly the essential characteristics of understanding Verstehen , of subjective meaning gemeinter Sinn , or of action Handeln Walsh:xxi.
Type: E Define and differentiate stocks of knowledge, recipes, and typifications. Schutz sets out several interrelated concepts that help clarify the Weberian notion of social action and interpretive understanding. These concepts include lifeworld and intersubjectivity, discussed previously, and stocks of knowledge, recipes, and typifications. Stocks of knowledge Erfahrung provide actors with rules for interpreting interactions, social relationships, organizations, institutions, and the physical world.
Type: E Define umwelt and mitwelt and show how they connect to stocks of knowledge. The elements in our stock of knowledge do not contain the same weight or value in every situation. Specifically, the umwelt is the realm of directly experienced social reality. By contrast, the mitwelt world of contemporaries is the realm of indirectly experienced social reality.
Type: E Explain the differences and similarities between habitualization and institutionalization. Habitualization, that is, the process by which the flexibility of human actions is limited. All activity is subject to habitualization, as repeated actions inevitably become routinized. Habitualization carries with it the psychological advantage that choices are narrowed. Berger and Luckmann use the terms externalization, objectivation, and reification to refer to the process by which human activity and society attain the character of objectivity.
Externalization and objectivation enable the actor to confront the social world as something outside of herself. Institutions appear external to the individual, as historical and objective facticities.
They confront the individual as undeniable facts. Objectivation and reification are related to the Marxist concept of alienation Berger and Luckmann , Nevertheless, it is in intergenerational transmission that the process of internalization is complete.
Type: E Explain the primary similarity and the central difference between phenomenology and ethnomethodology. Phenomenologists and ethnomethodologists analyze the taken-for-granted everyday world that is the basis for all human conduct.
Phenomenologists seek to explain how people actively produce and sustain meaning. Ethnomethodologists focus less on meaning and subjectivity and more on the actual methods people use to accomplish their everyday lives. In contrast to phenomenology, which as indicated above has close ties to psychology and philosophy, ethnomethodology has close ties to linguistics and mainstream sociology.
Ethnomethodologists are more interested in how actors assure each other that meaning is shared than the actual meaning structures themselves. They seek to suspend belief in a rule-governed order in order to observe how the regular, coherent, connected patterns of social life are described and explained in ways that create that order itself Zimmerman and Wieder That is, they seek to understand how people see, describe, and jointly develop a definition of the situation ibid.
Students should contrast this from the structural functionalist, conflict, and interactionist perspectives as well as the sociological imagination. Type: E Define the concept of bifurcation of consciousness. This term underscores that subordinate groups are conditioned to view the world from the perspective of the dominant group, since the perspective of the latter is embedded in the institutions and practices of that world.
Smith uses this term to refer to a separation or split between the world as you actually experience it and the dominant view to which you must adapt e. The notion of bifurcation of consciousness underscores that subordinate groups are conditioned to view the world from the perspective of the dominant group, since the perspective of the latter is embedded in the institutions and practices of that world.
Conversely, the dominant group enjoys the privilege of remaining oblivious to the worldview of the Other, or subordinate group, since the Other is fully expected to accommodate to them. Smith goes on to suggest that because sociology too relies on these same kinds of texts, it too is part and parcel of the relations of ruling. Husserl used the term lifeworld Lebenswelt to refer to the world of existing assumptions as they are experienced and made meaningful in consciousness Wagner However, in contrast to Durkheim, Schutz does not conceptualize the preorganized and pregiven elements of the lifeworld as acting on the individual with the external power of constraint.
Type: E Define stocks of knowledge, recipes, and typifications drawing upon your own life for concrete examples. Be sure to explain how these concepts differ between different individuals. In sum, the language we learn and the social structures within which we live provide us with a stockpile of typifications and recipes that make the world both intelligible and manageable.
This does not mean, however, that specific elements of the cultural realm are the same for every person. How does habitualization, institutionalization play into the family unit? Be sure to include all terms you feel play a relevant role in your family experience. As Berger and Luckmann maintain: only with the transmission of the social world to a new generation that is, internalization as effectuated in socialization does the fundamental social dialectic appear in its totality.
To repeat, only with the appearance of a new generation can one properly speak of a social world. In other words, every individual is born into an environment within which she encounters the significant others who are in charge of her socialization. In the process of socialization, the stocks of knowledge that the individual experiences as a preexisting objective reality are imposed on her. Berger and Luckmann differentiate two types of socialization based on the extent to which individuals are active and conscious of the process of internalization.
Whereas primary socialization is predefined and taken for granted, secondary socialization is acquired in a more conscious way e. It is for this reason that primary socialization has so much more of an impact on the individual than secondary socialization. Primary socialization is distinguished by the fact that it cannot take place without an emotionally shared identification of the child with his significant others: you have to love your mother, but not your teacher Type: E Define in detail ethnomethodology.
Provide real world examples of how you could apply an ethnomethodological analysis to a social situation.
Compare and contrast ethnomethodology and phenomenology. Ethnomethodology literally means the study of the methods people use to accomplish their everyday lives. Like phenomenology, ethnomethodology is concerned with how individuals make sense of their everyday circumstances.
Thus, for instance, women in male-dominated professions e. Reviews There are no reviews yet.
Gilman drew upon which three sociological theoretical traditions for her work? The Yellow Wallpaper 1. A Day With Sunshine 2. A Summer Forgotten 3. When Gilman studied gender inequality following a Marxist tradition, she analyzed which factors?
Classical And Contemporary Sociological Theory, 3rd Edition by Scott Appelrouth – Test Bank
Edmund Husserl is commonly considered the founder of phenomenology. Rather, all consciousness is consciousness of something, Husserl used the term lifeworld Lebenswelt to refer to the world of existing assumptions as they are experienced and made meaningful in consciousness Wagner Husserl explains how intentional consciousness, that is, directing our attention in one way or another, enables the phenomenologist to reconstruct or bracket his basic views on the world and himself and explore their interconnections. Phenomenology investigates the systematic bracketing of all existing assumptions regarding the external world. In casting interpretive understanding, or Verstehen, as the principal objective of sociology, Weber offered a distinctive counter to those who sought to base sociology on the effort to uncover universal laws applicable to all societies.