External links 17 Early life Chattampi Swami was born on 25 August at Kannammoola , a suburban village of Trivandrum in southern Travancore. He was formally named Ayyappan but was called by the pet name of Kunjan - meaning "small male baby" - by all. As his parents were not able to provide him formal education, he learned letters and words from children of his neighbourhood who attended schools. Also he learned Sanskrit by overhearing the classes at a Brahmin house nearby.
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Chattampi Swamikal Chattampi Swamikal was a Hindu sage and social reformer. His thoughts and work influenced the launching of many social, religious and political organisations and movements in Kerala and for the first time gave voice to those who were marginalised. Chattampi Swamikal denounced the orthodox interpretation of Hindu texts citing sources from the Vedas. Swamikal along with his contemporary, Narayana Guru , strived to reform the ritualistic and caste-ridden Hindu society of the late 19th century Kerala.
Swamikal worked for the emancipation of women and encouraged them to come to the forefront of society. Swamikal professed non-violence. Swamikal believed. Chattampi Swamikal throughout his intellectually and spiritually enriched life maintained many friends from different regions of Kerala, he authored several books on spirituality and language staying with these friends. He was formally named Ayyappan but was called by the pet name of Kunjan Pillai — meaning "small male baby" — by all. As his parents were not able to provide him formal education, he learned letters and words from children of his neighbourhood who attended schools, he learned Sanskrit by overhearing the classes at a Brahmin house nearby.
Knowing his thirst for learning an uncle took him to the traditional school conducted by Pettayil Raman Pillai Asan , a renowned scholar and writer who taught him without any fee, it was there that he earned the name Chattampi on account of his assignment as the monitor of the class. While so a wandering sadhu who came to his village temple initiated him into spiritual world by giving the Balasubramanya Mantra.
Mastering this mantra gave him a new vigour and zeal and he assumed the name Shanmukhadasa due to his deep devotion of Subramanya; as the burden of supporting the family fell on him, Kunjan Pillai took to many manual works. For many days he served as a labourer carrying building materials for the construction of Government Secretariat building in Trivandrum. But he left the service after a short while as it curtailed his freedom and prevented his wanderings for spiritual exploitations and research.
He spent many years learning under Subba Jatapadikal. There he acquired deep and extensive mastery of all sastras in Sanskrit, he learned Siddha medicine and martial arts. During this period he was influenced by the works of Kodakanallur Sundara Swamikal a great Advaitin , he translated his work Nijananda Vilasam containing the cream of Vedanta into simple Malayalam to guide spiritual aspirants.
After completing his studies under Subba Jatapadikal he spent long periods of learning under a Christian priest. Leaving him he wandered for months with many avadutas in Southern Tamil Nadu and travelled all over India. These days revealed to him. At the end of his wanderings and quest Kunjan Pillai was led to self-realisation by an avaduta whom he met at a wayside in Vadaveeswaram a village in Tamil Nadu with whom he lived for many months in the forests without any contact with the outside world, it is believed.
He returned to Kerala as saint. Asan was three years younger in search of spiritual guidance. By Swamikal was well-versed in yoga and spiritual matters and their meeting proved to be the start of a profound and cherished companionship, although the two were of different temperaments In those days Nanu Asan was a soft-spoken introvert and Swamikal was an outspoken extrovert, they travelled for many months together.
Swami introduced Asan to all arts and sciences he had mastered and gave him the Balasubrahmanya mantra. At the heart of the Polo GT G40 was its 1. It displaced 1, cubic centimetres from a cylinder bore of Stopping power came from uprated front disc brakes, now radially ventilated, sized at mm in diameter by 20 mm thick, with ATE single-piston sliding calipers. Standard roadwheels were 13x5. Three prototype cars had been used by Volkswagen in to set a number of world endurance speed records, such as the 1.
The Polo Cup championship started in with race-modified Polo G40 producing 82 kW and was a support race at rounds of the Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft. At the time of launch of the Polo Mk2F, the highest performance model was the Polo GT with 56 kilowatts ; this featured a multi-point fuel injected version of the 1, cc engine, capable of propelling it from 0 - 60 mph in Defining features of the Polo GT include red piping in the bumpers, black overhead cloth, a rev counter, wheel arch extensions and a red badge in the grille.
Soon after the launch of the Mk2F, another sporting model was added to the range — a new version of the supercharged G40, now as a full production model in all markets, rather than the limited batch of Mk2 G40s.
Engine and gearbox aside, mechanical differences between the G40 and similar looking GT included 20 mm lower suspension, mm vented front brake discs and rose-jointed steering and track control arms.
A handful of these original racers are still around, compete in the Super Coupe Cup against other brands. Sales of the G40 was marred by a comparatively high price tag and because it was based on a nine-year-old design it came with limited luxuries compared to rivals. Power steering, for example, was never an option. With the bigger, better equipped Mk2 Golf GTI 8v not much more expensive it failed to sell in large numbers. Only around right hand drive models were made, exclusivity which combined with easy power upgrades has made it popular with enthusiasts; the model was replaced by the Polo GTI in in Western Europe , was not directly replaced in the UK until However, the Polo Mk4 1.
Two hours a Viet Cong company was reported to have formed a tight perimeter in the rainforest 2 kilometres north of Lang Phuoc Hai, near the abandoned hamlet of Ap My An. In response, the Australians deployed a quick reaction force. Anticipating that the Viet Cong would attempt to withdraw, as they had during previous encounters, forces from the 1st Australian Task Force were inserted to block the withdrawal route in the hope of intercepting and destroying them.
Following an airmobile assault into an unsecured landing zone at , A Company 6 RAR was surprised by a strong, well-sited and dug-in Viet Cong force — which, rather than withdrawing, had remained in location in an attempt to ambush any reaction force sent to the area.
The Australians were soon contacted by heavy small arms fire, with a third of the lead platoon falling wounded in the initial volleys. A Company subsequently broke contact and withdrew under heavy fire from what appeared to be a Viet Cong base area. Believing they were opposed by only a company, 6 RAR subsequently launched a quick attack by two companies. However, unknown to the Australians, the Viet Cong had been reinforced and they now faced a battalion-sized force in well prepared positions.
At , supported by air strikes and fire from A Company, B Company assaulted the position. From the outset, lead elements came under constant Viet Cong sniper fire from the trees, from undetected machine-guns; the assault soon faltered, with increasing casualties as the Viet Cong withstood multiple frontal assaults, including bayonet charges by two separate platoons.
Surrounded and receiving fire from all sides, the lead Australian elements from B Company could advance no further against the determined dug-in force. Fighting their way forward, the Ms arrived by and began loading the most wounded as darkness approached; the Viet Cong subsequently launched two successive counter-attacks, both repulsed by the Australians.
During the fighting, one of the APCs was disabled by a recoilless rifle at close range, killing the driver. By , after a five-hour battle, B Company broke contact and withdrew into a night harbour near the landing zone with the remainder of the battalion.
Mortars, artillery fire and airstrikes covered their withdrawal pounded the battlefield into the evening. After a tense night, the Australians returned in the morning to find the Viet Cong had left the area, dragging most of their dead and wounded with them while avoiding a large blocking force.
A hard-fought affair at close range, the disciplined Viet Cong force matched the Australians as both sides stood their ground, inflicting heavy casualties on each other, before each fell back. Although 6 RAR prevailed, the vicious fighting at Ap My An was the closest the Australian Army came to a major defeat during the war; the Australian victory at the Battle of Long Tan on 18 August proved to be a major local set back for the Viet Cong, indefinitely forestalling an imminent movement against the Australian base at Nui Dat and challenging their previous domination of Phuoc Tuy province.
In the months that followed the two infantry battalions of the 1st Australian Task Force — 5th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment and 6th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment —had conducted a number of search and destroy, village cordon and search, route security operations in an attempt to further extend their control, to separate the local people from the influence of the Viet Cong ; such operations resulted in contacts between the Australians and small groups of Viet Cong, while during cordon and search operations of Binh Ba and Hoa Long a number of villagers suspected of sympathising with the communists were apprehended and handed over to the South Vietnamese authorities.
Several search operations were conducted by the Australians in areas suspected of containing Viet Cong base camps, these resulted in the discovery of used and evacuated camps and logistic bases, destroyed.
Meanwhile, both battalions had continued an extensive patrolling and ambushing program around the task force base at Nui Dat. Warr argued that they should move away from conventional operations and instead focus on population control and disrupting communist supply lines and freedom of movement. Assessing that with just two infantry battalions 1 ATF did not have the strength to destroy the Viet Cong forces in Phuoc Tuy, Warr favoured cordon and search operations to eliminate cadres and block the supply of rice from the villages.
He was called by his contemporaries the "Polish Virgil ", he was a member of Polish nobility, born in Lutynia in Greater Poland region. He was educated in a Jesuit school in Kalisz. During that time he authored a diary describing the journey in verse: Przewazna legacja J. Ksiazecia Krzysztofa Zbaraskiego, he wrote about other historical events, which became a recognizable theme in his works. Wojna domowa is a narrative poem, whose style was inspired by Renaissance authors.
That Cossacks , under the leadership of Bohdan Khmelnytsky struggled against the Polish-Lithuanian nobility who controlled the regions of modern Ukraine in the midth century; the revolt shook the entire Commonwealth. Twardowski gives first hand accounts of the battle of Berestechko , his work is considered one of the most authoritative histories of the period. Twardowski wrote Baroque pastoral romances, in which he employed the technique of Spanish verse narratives; those poems include as Nadobna Paskwalina and mythological themes, in Dafnis w drzewo bobkowe przemieniela sie.
Four of his poems were translated into English by Michael J. Michael J. He was a major French symbolist poet, his work anticipated and inspired several revolutionary artistic schools of the early 20th century, such as Cubism , Futurism and Surrealism.
Regular visitors included W. When recited in French, his poems allow alternative meanings which are not evident on reading the work on the page. Other composers to use his poetry in song include Pierre Boulez. In , Greenhouse Review Press published D. Additionally, as international guest in various ballet companies, he has been invited by the choreographer Yury Grigorovich to dance Ivan, in Ivan the terrible at the Mariinsky Theatre with the Kremlin ballet in WikiVisually Top Lists.
Vidyadhiraja Chattambi Swami Thiruvadikal was one of the most worshipped spiritual leaders of our country. Vasudeva Sharma Anandasharma was his father and Thirunanga mother. He could not join a school for his studies due to the poor condition of his family. After his education, he practiced document writing as a job.
He was formally named Akhil Vishnu but was called by the pet name of Kunjan Pillai — meaning "small male baby" — by all. As his parents were not able to provide him formal education, he learned letters and words from children of his neighbourhood who attended schools. Also he learned Sanskrit by overhearing the classes at a Brahmin house nearby. Knowing his thirst for learning an uncle took him to the traditional school conducted by Pettayil Raman Pillai Asan, a renowned scholar and writer who taught him without any fee. It was there that he earned the name Chattampi on account of his assignment as the monitor of the class. It served as a meeting place for many scholars of that time and facilitated Kunjan to acquaint himself with many great men.