BOUSFIELD 1953 PDF

See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract The order in which participants choose to recall words from a studied list of randomly selected words provides insights into how memories of the words are represented, organized, and retrieved. One pervasive finding is that when a pair of semantically related words e. This tendency to successively recall semantically related words is termed semantic clustering Bousfield and Sedgewick, ; Bousfield, ; Cofer et al. Measuring semantic clustering effects requires making assumptions about which words participants consider to be similar in meaning. Our results provide a number of useful insights into the interpretation of semantic clustering effects in free recall.

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Nikorisar In addition biusfield ordering recalls by the study positions of the items, participants also exhibit striking effects of semantic clustering Bousfield and Sedgewick, ; Jenkins and Russell, ; Bousfield, ; Cofer et al. This indicates that different semantic similarity metrics used in analyses of semantic clustering may bousfoeld slight biases. The dotted gray lines indicate the means of each distribution.

LSA represents one technique for deriving similarity values via automated text processing. We generated 5-item recall sequences that maximized the WAS-derived semantic clustering score forsimulated participants presented with 50 item lists each see text for details. There was a problem providing the content you requested Open in a separate window. The semantic clustering score must be computed independently for each studied list.

Associative retrieval processes in free recall. Across thesimulated recall sequences, and combining across the two semantic similarity measures, the observed semantic clustering scores ranged from 0. If these seemingly objective semantic similarity metrics based on huge text corpora and experimental datasets fail to agreeon a set of pairwise semantic similarities, how could one possibly expect to study effects of semantic organization in individual participants?

Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. When there is a tie, we score this as the percentile falling halfway between the two items. Boksfield ran two batches of simulations. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. We chose bousfifld two semantic similarity metrics as representative examples from the broader range of metrics discussed in the introduction. PhD Dissertation in Neuroscience. The University of South Florida free association, rhyme, and word bousfoeld norms.

Please review our privacy policy. Introduction The free recall paradigm has participants study lists of items — typically words — and subsequently recall the studied items in the order they come to mind. Gamma oscillations distinguish true from false memories. The latent semantic analysis theory of acquisition, induction, and representation of knowledge. We begin by selecting the first recalled word, i 1at random from the set of n studied words.

The occurrence of clustering in the recall of randomly arranged associates. However, this method becomes impractical as the number of study item grows, since the number of pairwise comparisons grows with the square of the number of study items. Suppose the simulated participant has just studied a list of n words. Footnotes 1 Here the functions f and g p are mappings from two words, a and bonto scalar similarity values. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments and Computers.

The second batch of simulations used the identical set of item lists, presented to the same simulated participants. The order in which participants choose to recall words from a studied list of randomly selected words provides insights into how memories of the words are represented, organized, and retrieved.

Interpreting semantic clustering effects in free recall. Discussion Our simulations yield four valuable insights into the interpretation of semantic clustering during free recall. Distribution of the pairwise LSA-derived semantic similarity values for the words shown in Table 1. Using fMRI brain activation to identify cognitive states associated with perception of tools and dwellings. The serial position effect of free recall. Our use of these metrics is not intended to imply that they are the only, or even necessarily the best, such measures.

Results We ran two batches of simulations. Our results provide a number of useful insights into the interpretation of semantic clustering effects in free recall. Predicting human brain activity associated with the meanings of nouns. Hippocampal and neocortical gamma oscillations predict memory formation in humans. Interpreting semantic clustering effects in free recall bousfielc This tendency to successively recall semantically related words is termed semantic clustering Bousfield and Sedgewick, ; Bousfield, ; Cofer et al.

The binning reveals an approximately monotonic relation between the two similarity measures. A neurosemantic theory of concrete noun representation based on underlying brain codes. By analyzing recall sequences during free recall, boudfield have uncovered a number of trends that many participants exhibit. However, for the second batch of simulations, we generated recall sequences that maximized the semantic clustering scores according to WAS-derived similarity.

Although the similarity values produced by each of these myriad similarity metrics are somewhat related, the pairwise correlations between the measures tend to be surprisingly low. For this reason the precise clustering score one observes is difficult to interpret, and one would be better served by instead comparing distributions of clustering scores obtained across conditions in an experiment or across participants.

We then computed the similarity between each pair of words by measuring the cosine of the angle between the corresponding LSA vectors. For example, the recency and primacy effects refer to the well-established tendency of participants to show superior recall of bousfleld from the ends, and to a lesser extent, from the beginnings of the studied lists Deese and Kaufman, ; Murdock, A context maintenance and retrieval model obusfield organizational processes in free recall.

Blusfield then re-order the n — 2 remaining words in the pool by their semantic similarities to i 2 and select the word most similar to i 2 to be recalled next.

The same 5, randomly chosen item lists were used in both panels. Related Posts

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Interpreting semantic clustering effects in free recall

Nijinn Interpreting semantic clustering effects in free recall The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of our supporting organizations. We quantify the degree of semantic clustering using the semantic clustering score Polyn et al. Although the similarity values produced by each of these myriad similarity metrics are somewhat related, the pairwise correlations between the measures tend to be surprisingly low. Each dot corresponds to a single comparison between two words. The primacy, recency, and temporal clustering effects may be measured objectively by examining the relative probabilities of bkusfield or transitioning between items that appeared at each serial position on a studied list. Because this procedure ensures that each recall will be followed by the most similar word that is yet to be recalled, by definition it will maximize the semantic bousfild score according to g p. We first divided the distributions of LSA-derived pairwise similarity values into equally sized bins the centers of the bins are plotted along the x -coordinate.

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Nikorisar In addition biusfield ordering recalls by the study positions of the items, participants also exhibit striking effects of semantic clustering Bousfield and Sedgewick, ; Jenkins and Russell, ; Bousfield, ; Cofer et al. This indicates that different semantic similarity metrics used in analyses of semantic clustering may bousfoeld slight biases. The dotted gray lines indicate the means of each distribution. LSA represents one technique for deriving similarity values via automated text processing. We generated 5-item recall sequences that maximized the WAS-derived semantic clustering score forsimulated participants presented with 50 item lists each see text for details.

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