Even the most sophisticated chips to date have millions of transistors embedded within them and configured into complex circuits, assigned with many discrete and specific operations through different stages. All transistors basically function in the same manner. They are broadly distinguished by their power ratings or power handling capacities. They may be also classified by their frequency handling capabilities and their amplification determining factor or hFE. A BC is a general purpose, small signal transistor fit for almost all types of circuit applications and therefore extensively used for making an unlimited range of electronic gadgets today.
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Even the most sophisticated chips to date have millions of transistors embedded within them and configured into complex circuits, assigned with many discrete and specific operations through different stages. All transistors basically function in the same manner. They are broadly distinguished by their power ratings or power handling capacities. They may be also classified by their frequency handling capabilities and their amplification determining factor or hFE.
A BC is a general purpose, small signal transistor fit for almost all types of circuit applications and therefore extensively used for making an unlimited range of electronic gadgets today. The diagram shows the basic appearance of the transistor, which might differ slightly depending upon the particular make, however the technical specs and the pin-out assignments remain identical.
You may refer to the article Watt transistor amplifier to see an example of the role of complementary transistor pairs in making a particular circuit more efficient. Other than being NPN and PNP types, the above groups also differ with their rating, so the data given here relates to many details of each device.
Though, this value is the breakdown limit, above which the part may just burn off, it may be noticed that the transistors start heating up well inside the reach of this limit, probably around 70 mA. This value quite corresponds to I max and are interconnected.
P max here is mW or half watt for the entire group. An increase in the hFE level simply attributes the particular device with more sensitivity, which means it can be triggered with minute base currents, yet switch heavier loads across its collector. The above criteria concerning a BC are the important ones and probably sufficient for helping new users during their construction projects, The following section shows some fundamental rules and hints apply these devices into simple electronic circuits.
As shown in the figure below, consider you have a single BC transistor. What could you build using it to make it perform something substantial? You will need to make an initial platform or a basic set-up and then make it work as desired. Next, connect an LED and a resistor to the collector of the transistor, with the help of the diagram.
The LED will provide you with immediate visual information regarding the happenings with the circuit. The collector resistor again ensures that the UCEO is kept within the specified limits, safeguarding the transistor as well as the LED. This happens because a small part of the voltage reaches the base of the transistor and switches ON its collector to ground and allows the voltage to complete, illuminating the LED. This happens because the required magnitude of base potential, instead of reaching the transistor gets grounded through the pot.
This circuit uses an NPN transistor. With a PNP transistor e. BC , the conditions simply reverses, i. If another NPN stage is introduced after the above discussed circuit see figure , the circuit produces the opposite results: initially the LED remains switched but switches ON when the pot is moved in the above manner. However, here the switching transitions are quick with minimum hysteresis making the unit more accurate than a single transistor version. The above transistor features can be successfully implemented for many different circuit applications.
I have already discussed a huge number of BC simple circuit configurations. You may like to refer to them through this article and understand how the above properties are simply exploited, and also you might want to develop your own ideas and learn using the above operating principles of the device.
Here are some other example circuits found here at Bright Hub. A classic example circuit using an PNP device, where the withdrawing or falling positive voltage level at some point of time becomes too low to keep the transistor reverse biased.
The condition provides more negative bias to the base of the BC transistor and switches ON the LED assembly, indicating an undesirable voltage condition of the battery. Simple Mains Voltage Stabilizer Circuit : Again, voltage detection becomes the main function of the circuit.
Current Limiter : Two BC transistors when connected as shown in the article, provides a useful feature of controlling the amount of current drawn by the load. The arrangement makes sure that the current to the load never increases beyond a certain set limit, as calculated through a limiting resistor. Rain Alarm : Detecting the start of rain can be made by using this circuit comprising just two BC devices and some other passive parts.
References Images — Drawn by the author.
How to Make Simple Electronic Circuits Using Transistor BC547
Usually, students use a timer IC to build a simple LED blinker, which is fine for temporary experimentation; however, it is not cost effective to dedicate an IC permanently for such a mundane task. Instead, we can use cheaper components to blink LEDs. The great thing about this circuit is that since it is cheap, you could make permanent blinkers on strip board, after you have built a prototype on breadboard. When the capacitor has sufficient charge, it discharges through the emitter junction of the BC transistor. This charge, then flows through the base junction of BC making it conduct and thereby powering the LED. You will need to understand basic transistor switching theory to truly understand the operation. You must have understanding that a positive voltage at the base junction of an NPN transistor will cause it to conduct.
BC547 Datasheet, Equivalent, Cross Reference Search
BC has a gain value of to , this value determines the amplification capacity of the transistor. The maximum amount of current that could flow through the Collector pin is mA, hence we cannot connect loads that consume more than mA using this transistor. To bias a transistor we have to supply current to base pin, this current IB should be limited to 5mA. When this transistor is fully biased then it can allow a maximum of mA to flow across the collector and emitter. When base current is removed the transistor becomes fully off, this stage is called as the Cut-off Region and the Base Emitter voltage could be around mV. As discussed a transistor will act as an Open switch during Forward Bias and as a Closed switch during Reverse Bias, this biasing can be achieved by supplying the required amount of current to the base pin.
BC547 Bipolar Transistor
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