Vocalizations[ edit ] The grey-necked wood rail has a loud, repetitive cackling call mainly heard at dawn and dusk: pop-tiyi pop-tiyi co-co-co-co-co or chitico chitico cao-cao-cao. The is a harsh, loud cackle or clucking shriek. The grey-necked wood rail rarely flies, although when it is flushed out, it will generally move to a branch close to the ground. If it is being observed, it is generally cautious. The depth is usually between under 4 and 9 centimetres 1. The overall height of the nest is around 16 centimetres 6.
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Abstract The taxonomy of the polytypic and wide-ranging Gray-necked Wood-rail, Aramides cajaneus is reviewed, based on external morphology and voice. Throughout its distribution, there is extensive plumage variation, much of it taxonomically uninformative. Aramides albiventris presents extensive plumage variation, but with no geographic structure.
The song of Aramides cajaneus and Aramides avicenniae is strikingly and completely different from the song of Aramides albiventris. A previously unnoticed parapatric pattern of distribution of Aramides cajaneus and its congener Aramides saracura in southeastern Brazil is described, and we clarify that the name Aramides plumbeicollis, included in the synonymy of Aramides albiventris, was first made available in , rather than in as is widely referred.
In addition, plumage variation in Aramides ypecaha, Aramides wolfi, and Aramides mangle is discussed. Keywords: Aramides wolfi, Aramides mangle, Aramides ypecaha, Central America, voice, nomenclature, Wood-rails Introduction The genus Aramides Rallidae , as currently accepted, includes seven species of medium to large rails inhabiting mainly aquatic and semi-aquatic environments throughout most of the Neotropics.
They have long bills and legs, mostly gray, black, brown and green plumage, barred underwing coverts and a black tail. It is diagnosable by having an entirely gray neck, which contrasts with its chestnut chest Ripley , Taylor , Sick , Taylor However, its plumage is highly variable, especially regarding the colors of the nape, lower chest and back, which led to it currently being recognized as containing nine subspecies, making it the only polytypic species in the genus Bangs , Hellmayr , Hellmayr and Conover , Ripley , Stotz , Taylor , Taylor The taxonomic history of Aramides cajaneus is rife with disagreements concerning the allocation of specific or subspecific status to populations, as well as about the morphological characters, diagnoses and geographic limits of these putative taxa.
This taxon was included by Pucheran in his newly described genus Aramides, and thereafter became known as Aramides cajanea. Thus the correct agreement is cajaneus. The nine subspecies of Aramides cajaneus can be divided into two groups. The first consists of five subspecies usually considered more closely related to Aramides cajaneus albiventris, and that occur from Costa Rica northwards. It includes Aramides cajaneus albiventris, plumbeicollis, mexicanus, pacificus and vanrossemi.
The first to be described was Aramides albiventris, from Belize and Guatemala, by Lawrence At the time of their descriptions, both were considered allied to, but separate species from Aramides cajaneus. Aramides albiventris was distinguished from cajaneus by its paler chest, black belly and presence of a white band in the lower chest. Later, Bangs considered plumbeicollis a subspecies of albiventris, and described a new subspecies, Aramides albiventris mexicanus, from Vera Cruz, Mexico.
Miller and Griscom questioned this intergradation, elevated both mexicanus and plumbeicollis to full species, and described Aramides plumbeicollis pacificus from Tipitapa, in western Nicaragua, based on its darker overall color and lack of white in the lower chest. The last of the group to be described was Aramides vanrossemi Dickey, , from El Salvador.
It would be distinguished from albiventris by its overall paler coloration and green rather than yellow terminal third of the maxilla.
Then, for the first time and without presenting any rationale, Peters and later Hellmayr and Conover considered all the above-mentioned taxa to be subspecies of Aramides cajaneus, a treatment that has been followed by all authors ever since.
The second group of subspecies consists of Aramides cajaneus cajaneus and the three taxa considered more closely related to it, namely Aramides cajanea latens, morrissoni and avicenniae. They are distributed from Costa Rica southwards. Aramides cajaneus cajaneus occurs in southern Costa Rica, Panama, and throughout most of South America east of the Andes, except where it is replaced by Aramides cajanea avicenniae see below.
Aramides cajanea latens was described by Bangs and Penard in and Aramides cajaneus morrissoni by Wetmore in They would be distinguished from cajaneus and from each other by subtle differences in size and overall coloration. Aramides cajaneus cajaneus has several junior synonyms, erected on the basis of one or very few specimens: Aramides cajanea venezuelensis Cory, , Aramides cajanea peruviana Cory, , Aramides cajanea salmoni Chubb, and Aramides cajanea grahami Chubb, None of these, however, was ever accepted as valid after their publication.
Unlike the aforementioned names, it did receive consideration in the literature, being recognized as a subspecies by Sharpe , and having its validity discussed, but discarded, by Bangs , Hellmayr , , Hellmayr and Conover and Stotz Yet another taxon related to Aramides cajaneus is Aramides gutturalis Sharpe, , based on a single peculiar specimen of uncertain provenance.
It was accepted as a full species by Peters and Hellmayr and Conover , but has since been considered a badly prepared skin of Aramides cajaneus Meyer de Schauensee , Taylor , In contrast to Aramides cajaneus, all other species of Aramides are monotypic and have much more restricted distributions. They are also among the least known species of Neotropical rails.
Basic descriptive data, such as voice and distribution, are deficient or lacking for some of them Ripley , Taylor , Vaca et al. Most significantly, none of them has ever had its morphological variation analyzed. In light of its complex taxonomic history and the extensive variation in external morphology presented by Aramides cajaneus, its plumage and morphometric variation is reviewed and its vocalizations examined in a taxonomic context for the first time.
Based on these data, a revised, more adequate taxonomic treatment is proposed for the taxa currently included in it. Plumage variation in some other species of Aramides is briefly presented and discussed for the first time.
Photographs were not taken under standardized lighting conditions, but extensive experience with physical examination of Aramides skins as well as of a wealth of other bird taxa in many lighting conditions allowed us to confidently discern those photographs that allowed meaningful comparison of plumage from those that did not, and the latter were discarded from the analyses.
Among the specimens examined, either in person or through photographs, are the name-bearing type specimens of all the nominal taxa related to Aramides cajaneus mentioned above, except Aramides chiricote Vieillot In addition to specimens of Aramides cajaneus, we also examined in person or though photographs skins belonging to all other species of the genus. Skins of all species of Aramides were qualitatively compared, searching for variation in pattern and color of all plumage regions.
To describe colors, color names capitalized in the text below and codes from Munsell were sometimes used. Wing, tail, tarsus and bill height, length and width for Aramides cajaneus skins were all measured, following Baldwin et al. To evaluate geographical variation in measurements, they were plotted against latitude and longitude. All qualitative and quantitative examinations of skin specimens were conducted by the first author. Recordings were analyzed through aural inspection and, for those of good quality, as spectrograms on Raven Pro 1.
These measurements were taken using a frequency resolution of All qualitative and quantitative measurements analyses of sound recordings were conducted by the first author. This concept acknowledges that speciation is a prolonged process during which the diverging lineages acquire properties such as diagnosability, reciprocal monophyly, reproductive incompatibility that can be used in practice for their recognition as distinct species de Queiroz , Here, we investigate if such properties can be identified in any subpopulations of what is today understood as Aramides cajaneus.
We focus mainly on phenotypic differentiation and diagnosability, and also consider reproductive incompatibility, inasmuch as it can be inferred from differences in song, which plays a major role in avian mating Catchpole and Slater , Baptista and Kroodsma The lists of names in each species account include only the names applicable to each taxon and are thus strictly synonymies, not chresonymies Dubois In other words, they do not include variants of spelling or concordance, or different combinations of genus and variations of taxonomic level specific or subspecific in the usage of the names.
Species diagnoses are given only in relation to the other species in the Aramides cajaneus complex. Results and discussion Aramides cajaneus presents extensive plumage variation throughout its vast range. However, much of this variation is not geographically structured, such that specimens from the same locality are frequently more variable between each other than they are in relation to specimens from a distant locality.
These characters are, therefore, not taxonomically informative. Another example is the amount of greenish or brownish coloration on the rump. For example, in specimens from Lago do Baptista, Brazil, this ranges from totally black e. MZUSP and to almost totally brownish green e.
MZUSP and , with several intermediates e. MZUSP and Nevertheless, three plumage characters do vary geographically and allow the delineation of diagnosable clusters of individuals. These are: 1 back color, including the presence and intensity of a brown upper back mantle ; 2 presence of white feathers in the lower chest, separating the chestnut upper chest from the black belly; and 3 presence and intensity of a brown spot in the occiput.
Some of the recognized species can also be diagnosed based on remarkable geographical variation in song. Morphometric variation further contributes to characterize them, even though not to their diagnoses, because there is considerable overlap in measurements. In the next sections, we detail the geographical variation in plumage, as well as in vocalizations and morphometry, and discuss the more adequate taxonomy treatments, first by establishing the very well-marked division of the complex into Central American and South American components and then, by delving into variation within each of these components.
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